Speaker - Prof. Kambadur Muralidhar FNASc., FASC., FNA, Hon. Professor and Sir JC Bose National Fellow, Faculty of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, South Asian University. Biology is one of the three pillars of Natural Science otherwise called Modern Science or western science. This new philosophy began in Europe during the renaissance period and spread to other parts of the world through colonial rule. It seeks TRUTH about the structure and functioning of Nature by the use of scientific method. It is largely experimental in nature. Measurement is the foundation on which it is constructed. Biology for seventeen centuries was not experimental in nature. After the pronouncements of Rene Des Cartes it also became experimental. Biology has grown over the last two millennia in three phases i.e. in vivo, in vitro and in silico biology. In the establishment and practice of modern science, especially in the east or oriental nations, certain conflicts arose. All these conflicts arose upon ethical issues. Animal ethics vs Human ethics, Development vs environmental concerns, plagiarism as an endemic problem, rationality vs spirituality etc. are some of the conflicts. Science became an enterprise. Assessing science and scientists itself became an ethical issue. Science and Technology dictated developmental policies of the governments. The taxonomy of human knowledge began changing, thus affecting School, UG and PG education including pedagogy. Funding to science vis-a-vis other branches like social sciences and Humanities became controversial. It affected administration of Universities and Institutions. Philosophical and sociological problems arose. Communicating science to other scientists, leave alone educated layman became a problem. Conflict resolution is the issue today. An attempt will be made to discuss all these.