This work conducted by me mainly focuses on the issue of pesticides i.e. the adverse effects caused to biodiversity, wildlife as well as human beings. With the introduction of chemical fertilizers or we can say pesticides, the demand of agricultural products was finally matched with the growing need of rapidly increasingly population. Not only in agricultural sector, such chemical fertilizers were used in the manufacturing of various household appliances as well as to carry of different industrial functions. Therefore, the importance of such chemical fertilizers rises overnight which lead to the rapid increase in the manufacturing, sale, import and export of such chemicals. If we talk about agricultural sector (on which this whole research is solely based on), the use of pesticides was and still is humongous. But what led to such rapid increase of the use of pesticides in a short period of time? The answer is simple ‘increase in the production quantity of crops. But as it is well known that every coin has two sides, in the same way the unmonitored and excessive use of pesticides led to the destruction of biodiversity at a very large scale. Sadly, the veil from this bitter truth was exposed after several decades later when a number of terrestrial as well aquatic species went extinct. Not only this, several natural habitats be it a river, jungle, fertile land used for sowing crops and ponds were degraded to extent which was irreversible in nature and one could not even imagine that once such land used to be a serene view, full of fertility, wild life and natural beauty after having a look at the present condition caused by the lethal effects of the excessive use of pesticides. This research focuses on the previous conventions, agreements and treaties which were adopted globally to safeguard nature against the evil of chemical fertilizers (pesticides). India, being a party of various treaties and conventions enacted insecticide legislation, which focused on the registration and licencing of pesticides to be manufactured, imported and used which the territory of India. But, in the present times the act which was enforced almost five decades ago is not much of a use. This research thus emphasises on the need to enact a new law pertaining to the governance of chemical fertilizers to be used in agricultural sector. Further, this paper discussed the destruction caused by the prolonged use of pesticide endosulfan used in Kerala which not only severely affected the nature and wildlife but also destroyed the life of citizens residing in that area where endosulfan was sprayed continuously for two decades. The hue and cry made by the local residents which shortly became a national issue finally leading to the ban of endosulfan is also discussed in brief in the research paper.